How should members be ‘punished’ if there is an infraction of the community rules?
The rules in question here are the rules of conduct, within the walls of the community and are not to be confused with civil law, transgressions of civil law such as rape, assault or theft will be dealt with by the legal institutions of the host country. Rules such as not getting so drunk as to cause disruption, failure to complete tasks, take part in mandatory activities such as exercise or chores etc. should all be in some way punishable offences as they are in a school, university or company.
As with most systems there should be a series of progressive punishments (not including corporeal punishment) starting with official warnings and then progressing to a reduced pay of savings, subsequent bad behavior will result in a period of isolation and meditation, such and isolation needn’t be solitary confinement but a literal boycott, such as Charles Boycott endured, along with arduous tasks such as memorizing various social and philosophical stoic texts on social cohesion. This would continue until either the member decides to leave, or change their behavior.
3 strike systems of repeated bad behavior and a disregard for others, or a particularly awful transgression (faked research, plagiarism of others work) could ultimately be punishable by expulsion from the community. When such a decision is reached the effects should be immediate. Savings should be paid into a personal account exterior to the community or given as a check. Temporary guest accommodation will be provided for up to a month while the individual finds an alternative.
If a member is ejected from the community it can be for a set period of time. The very system of our criminal punishment and legal systems, not to mention the belief in the capacity for individuals to change does allow for the possibility that time outside the community to reflect might create significant change.
Permanent expulsion from the community (someone for example falsifying research, a direct contradiction to the entire foundation of what the community stands for), or one committing a crime shall never be allowed to enter any community again.
How often should changes in leadership occur?
Aside the exception of a challenge to the present leadership, in a vote of no confidence, in the current people in charge. A regular cycle of 4 or 5 years seems a reasonable amount of time. However, one must take care to pay attention to long term views and not just transitional current periods, each leadership team must focus on the future generations of the community and the world as a whole. Not on what might be temporary discomfort.
Leadership, in this sense mean elected officials, or people on committees. there are expert roles that could be exceptionally hard or impractical to replace regularly such as head chef, doctors, accountants, solicitors etc. etc. These unique positions need roper clarification as to what positions require “expertise” i.e. a Chartered Accountant and/or just experience i.e. someone balancing the books using Sage.
Other possibilities include a pool of the most experienced practitioners in a domain (assuming such a group exist) are chosen either at random or each has a cycle of holding the relevant position before ceding the position to another.